Band Saws

The band saw is one of the most versatile machines in the workshop; it is also one of the most misused. Ideal for making timber smaller, you can use it to rip and crosscut. Unlike the table saw, it will cut curves as well as perform deep ripping or re-sawing tasks. It is one of the safest stationary saws, and one of the quietest. Compact band saws are suitable for the bench, with bigger saws floorstanding.

Machine Basics

As substantial tension is applied to the blade, a hand­saw frame should be completely rigid and is usually made from heavy-gauge steel. The narrow, continuous blade is tensioned by a device that compensates for slight variations in blade length, and must be fitted and tensioned correctly for best performance. If you allow the blade to become blunt, you will need more effort to push the timber through the saw. It then  becomes more difficult to cut to a line and there is a greater chance of the blade breaking. Fitted with a suitable blade, a band saw can also be used to cut non­ferrous metals and plastics.


The table on a band saw may be cast iron or alloy. You can move a rip fence across this and lock in position for straight cutting. Most tables also have a slot in which you can slide a mitre fence. Used for crosscutting, you can lock it at various angles for mitre sawing via a protractor scale. For bevel cuts, you can tilt the table by releasing a lever underneath.

Band Wheels

Some small hobby band saws may have three band wheels, although most machines have two larger diameter ones. Three wheels increase throat capacity and therefore the cutting width, but there is a greater tendency for the blade to snap. Rubber or cork tyres on the band wheels are usually cambered, and provide grip for the blade.

Blade Guides

You raise or lower the upper guide mechanism according to the depth of timber being cut. It incorporates a blade guard and should be lowered to just above the work piece. You then position guide blocks either side of the blade to keep it running in line. A thrust wheel behind the blade rotates to take up the pressure when sawing.


Motor and Controls

Fitted at the back of the machine, the motor powers the lower band wheel, usually via a drive belt. Band saws may be single, two-speed or variable. There is a simple push button to activate the saw and a separate stop button.

Cutting Capacities

Important dimensions on a band saw include the height under the guides when fully raised. In theory, this is the maximum thickness, or width, of timber that you can saw. Most small band saws should really be restricted to cutting timber of no more than about 102-152 mm (4-6 in). Bigger, more powerful machines may have a depth capacity of up to 406 mm (16 in), although 254 mm (10 in) is more common. The other critical dimension is the throat capacity. This is the distance from the blade to the pillar of the band saw. A throat of about 380 mm (15 in) is usually adequate for most cutting operations in a small workshop.

How To Fold A Band Saw Blade

1 Wearing suitable gloves, grip the blade with both hands palms outwards. Hold it down with one foot, blade teeth facing outwards.

2 Form a loop in the blade by turning your hands in towards each other.

3 Form three coils in the blade by crossing it over and allowing it to fall to the floor.


Some band saws will accept blades as narrow as 3 mm (1/8 in), for cutting radii as tight as 10 mm (3/8 in). Big machines may take blades as wide as 38 mm (1½ in), ideal for re-sawing deep, heavy timber. For general sawing, a width of 12 mm (½ in) is a good choice, capable of cutting radii of 64 mm (2½ in).

Blades are available in two types: normal and skip tooth. Regular or triangular tooth pattern is common above 10 tpi, where less wood is removed. A skip tooth has a wide, shallow gullet with plenty of space for waste to accumulate, more suitable for cutting dry hardwood. Bimetal steel blades have teeth hardened by heat, producing harder tips and longer life. The rear of the blade is untreated and so more flexible. Standard steel teeth can be re-sharpened many more times than bimetal versions, although the time involved makes this uneconomical on small blades. Owing to their hardness, bimetal teeth cannot be reset.

Adjusting The Band Saw

Place the blade over the band wheels and tension using a knob at the back of the machine. The blade should run approximately central on the band wheel. Known as tracking, adjust this by turning the knob at the rear of the top band wheel. Check by rotating the band wheel by hand with the door open. Once the blade is tracking correctly, adjust the guides above and below the table. They should support the blade but not rub against it. Paper thickness is sufficient clearance. Check these adjustments each time a blade is replaced.

Word Discription :

Gullet The valley between two teeth points. tpi teeth per inch (25 mm)

Trunnion A casting on which the band-saw table is mounted, enabling it to tilt; usually has a protractor scale to set the angle accurately.

Aviones a escala, aeromodelsimo, contruccion de aviones a escala, Fabrica de modelos, Vuelo de aviones a escala

Click Image To Visit Site– Aeromodelista desde al año 1997. – Constructor experimentado de aeromodelos – Fundador del portal – Piloto experto – Docente principal de construcción y vuelo de aeromodelos de la academia AEROESCALAS en Envigado (Colombia)

Descarga GRATIS el curso completo para aprender a fabricar el "ALA ZAGI DE LADERA SIN MOTOR"

Mi intención es que incursiones en este maravilloso hobby, construyendo y volando tu propio aeromodelo.

Mi nombre es Jorge Mejía y soy un apasionado del aeromodelismo. Desde niño siempre tuve la ilusión de poder volar un aeromodelo, tener el control de el y hacer maniobras acrobáticas como los mejores pilotos.

Tal vez a ti también te gustaría hacerlo, y es por ello que he decidido ayudarte a que tu mismo fabriques el modelo que más te guste por medio de varios video tutoriales, los cuales he realizado teniendo en cuenta hasta el más mínimo detalle, y describen el paso a paso para fabricar algunos de los aeromodelos mas divertidos, por su fácil construcción y vuelo.

El Aero Demon 50 es el avión más recomendado para iniciarse en el aeromodelismo por su facilidad de vuelo y alta resistencia a golpes, adicionalmente su facilidad de fabricación lo hace muy atractivo, y sus reparaciones en caso de colisión se hacen en cuestión de minutos.

El tradicional Trainer ha sido por años el líder de los aviones a nitro por su gran realismo en comparación con los aviones reales.

El sonido de su motor hace acelerar el corazón del piloto y lo llena de adrenalina al sentir una fiel y verdadera experiencia de vuelo.

El gran Barón Rojo, conocido por sus grandes hazañas en la segunda guerra mundial. Es un modelo para principiantes y expertos, resistente a golpes y con gran capacidad de maniobra.

El avión Slow Moskit posee cualidades que lo convierten en el preferido de muchos, su facilidad de vuelo y su autonomía en el aire le permiten introducirse en corrientes térmicas que lo mantendrán en el aire por mucho tiempo y a grandes alturas.

Las alas zagi son conocidas por su alta resistencia a golpes y su maniorabilidad, poseen caracteristicas únicas como poder volar a altas velocidades (120 km/h) o a bajas velocidades pos su capacidad de planear

"Lo que más me gustó del curso fue la metodología con la que realizaron los video tutoriales, son muy claros y muestran de una manera sencilla como empezar y terminar cada pieza del aeromodelo.

Escogí el Das Ugly Stick porque me gustan mucho los aviones de guerra y este avión se asemeja bastante al gran Barón Rojo, solo me falta decorarlo y listo."

"Agradezco inmensamente al equipo técnico de aviones a escala. Soy estudiante de primer semestre de ingeniería aeronáutica, en clase nos exigen hacer un avión a escala sin tener la menor idea de cómo hacerlo. El curso que compre en Aviones a Escala no solo me enseño a hacer un simple avión a escala, si no un avión con todas las características técnicas para volar. Read more…

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Authentic Wholesale Designer Handbag Suppliers – Wholesale Purses

Authentic Wholesale Designer Handbag Suppliers - Wholesale PursesClick Image To Visit SiteIt’s no secret that the market for authentic designer handbags is profitable; designer handbags are one of the most sought-after items by women and they sell like hotcakes. However, if you’re like me, you know that finding legitimate wholesale suppliers of authentic designer handbags can feel impossible. I’m guessing you’ve probably spent hours online searching for these suppliers with no luck, or maybe you’ve come across a few that you think might be legitimate, but you’re not sure you can trust them. You could have even wasted money on worthless ‘wholesale lists’ that claimed to have distributors of authentic designer handbags yet were disappointed when they turned out to be junk. Or—worse—maybe you’ve gone ahead and purchased some merchandise from a supplier, but were burned in the end when it turned out to be fake or they disappeared and took off with your money (I’m sorry if this is the case).

If any of the previous statements sound like you, I understand your frustration. My name is Viktor, and I was exactly where you are today almost a decade ago. Back then, I spent countless hours searching for wholesale handbag suppliers online and kept coming up empty-handed. It was frustrating, because I knew these suppliers existed: I saw people selling this merchandise on eBay and other websites, but I couldn’t figure out where they were getting it from. No one wanted to talk. When it came to the point where I thought I had found a reputable supplier—a company based right in Italy, no less—I purchased $1,000 worth of Prada handbags from them, and they all turned out to be fake.

Believe me, finding these suppliers was not easy. They’re not easily found online, and some of the better ones don’t even have websites (yes, I know it’s 2012—it’s just how the business works). The people in this business who have access to these suppliers keep this information closely-guarded. No one wants to talk or give away their sources.

There are dozens of illegitimate companies that claim to wholesale authentic designer handbags but instead sell extremely high-quality knockoffs from China.

9 out of 10 wholesale suppliers selling "Authentic" designer merchandise are selling FAKES.

Most wholesale suppliers selling "so-called" authentic designer handbags, designer clothing, etc. are selling fakes. They’re selling what’s called ’7 Star Replicas’. And these aren’t just any replicas. They’re top-of-the-line knockoffs made in China—designer handbags that look so much like the real thing, most people can’t tell the difference. These bags comes with authenticity cards, dust covers, and even serial numbers, but they aren’t real. And get this: I’ve even taken some of these replicas to a major department store here in the United States and been told by their sales person that they were real! That’s how good they are. Granted, they didn’t fool every sales person; but they did fool some. 7 Star Replicas are a HUGE business in China; they… Read more…

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An Introduction to Design

This section concerns the concept of `design’ — exploring what is actually meant by the term, and demonstrating a simple step-by-step breakdown of a `design method’. This will provide you with an overview of the design process, and enough information to start designing for yourself.

What is design?

Design is essentially about meeting requirements, proposing solutions and solving problems. The process involves a whole range of intellectual and practical skills, including structural, aesthetic and conceptual thinking, in addition to economic, environmental, production and cultural considerations. In practical terms, all of this information has to be communicated through concept sketches, working drawings, graphics, models and prototypes.

A good designer is an informed person, who takes account of all these factors and uses his or her creative ability to give an end result that reflects the needs of the producer and user. Designers therefore need to be acutely aware of their market and to use an appropriate mix of skills for each problem.

What follows serves as an introduction to basic design. The principles described here apply whether you are designing a jewellery box, a chair or a large cabinet. Additional information may be required in certain cases: with a chair, for example, there may be ergonomic factors, such as the angle of the back, the height of the seat and whether arms are required; with a cabinet, the important issue is volume and various criteria for storage or display. One thing common to all furniture, however, is that both the structural requirements and the safety of users are primary considerations.

The design process

Think of the design process as a funnel: all the available information and known requirements are poured in, and filtered thorough as one, to result in a solution.   The result is a process that involves many separate elements interacting together.

1 Definition of the problem: You identify, or someone approaches you with, a problem that needs to be solved.

2 Research: You gather and collate as much information as possible about the problem.

3 Identification of constraints: You consider and highlight any constraints that may affect your progress – safety, materials, timescale or cost, for example.

4 Concept and exploration: You start to propose conceptual solutions, based on your Knowledge of the problem. This refined information is commonly known as a ‘brief’. The brief is used as a guide, so that when proposing solutions you do not stray too far from the problem and its constraints.

5 Design detail and development: You choose one or two of the best concepts and develop them by working to more detail, checking your ideas against the noted constraints as you go along. Once you have found a suitable solution you can produce working drawings.

6 Realization: You produce the design to scale or as a full-scale prototype. The quality of the result depends largely on how thoroughly the design phases were undertaken and how carefully the model or prototype is made.

7 Evaluation: You compare the proposed solution to the original brief. At this stage, you can decide on final improvements to the design before committing yourself to the production of the finished piece.



Word Discription :

Design brief A written plan identifying a problem and how it can be solved, wirementscriteria and constraints, by a designroughonomics The study of people’s relatiThe their working environment – particularly relevant in the design of furniture.


Abrasives And Sanding

Most completed pieces of furniture or joinery need sanding once they have been carefully planed or scraped. Never skimp on the time spent on preparation before applying a finishing coat. Thorough sanding may be tedious, but it will ensure that the beauty of the wood is revealed fully when a finish is eventually applied.

Abrasive Paper

The three main types of paper used by furniture-makers are garnet, aluminium oxide and silicon carbide. The grade, or coarseness, of abrasive paper is identified by a number printed on the back, and those most used by cabinet-makers are 80, 100, 120, 150, 180, 240 and 320 grit. Irrespective of type or grade, abrasive paper is sold in standard sizes, measuring 280 x 230 mm (approximately 11 x 9 in). It is normally folded and torn into four pieces for wrapping around a block for sanding by hand. Work systematically through the grades, from coarse to fine. This ensures scratches are removed, which would show up under a finishing coat.


Garnet paper is made from crushed stone particles, which are harder and last longer than glass. A good choice for sanding by hand, sheets are orange in colour. It is made specifically for sanding hard and softwoods and comes in grades from 40 to 320 grit.

Aluminium Oxide

Most suitable for power tools and sanding machines, aluminium oxide is available in coarser grades, from 40 to 320 grit. Particles are harder than garnet and suitable for metals and fillers, besides wood, and also for sanding by hand. The most economical way to buy it is in roll form, with widths of 90 and 115 mm (3½ and 4½ in). Lengths can be up to 100 m (approximately 327 ft). Coarser grades with a heavy backing paper for machine use have a tendency to crack when folded, so cut with a knife.

Silicon Carbide

The hardest abrasive of all, with particles almost as tough as diamond. You can use it on hard materials such as glass, as well as lacquers and paints. The most expensive abrasive, silicon carbide paper is flexible and lubricated with a fine dust, rather like talcum powder. It is ideal for final hand sanding of varnishes and lacquers, with grades from 60 to 500 grit.

Other Abrasives

Wet and Dry Paper

Used with soap and water as a lubricant, waterproof wet-and-dry paper is used to cut back coats of varnish or lacquer before applying subsequent ones. Available in grades from 80 to 1,200 grit, 400 grit is suitable for most finishes. Musical-instrument makers and fine cabinet-makers often use much finer grits, so that no scratches are visible under the final finishing coat.


Traditional glasspaper is relatively soft and the particles of glass wear rapidly. As a result, it clogs quickly and has a short lifespan. Flour paper is the finest grade (`00′) and is sometimes used for de-nibbing. Still sold in many hardware stores, glasspaper has long been superseded by far more effective abrasives.

Nylon Fibre Pads

Resembling pan scourers, resilient nylon-fibre pads are available with bonded aluminium oxide or silicon carbide particles. Resistant to clogging, they mould themselves to any shape and can even be washed under the tap. They are comparatively unaggressive, come in grades from 60 to 1,500 grit and are excellent for de-nibbing coats of lacquer or applying wax polish. Grades are distinguished by different colour pads.

Steel Wool

Steel, or wire, wool is available in several grades from ’4′ at the coarse end (for stripping) to ’0000′ at the fine end for cutting back and final finishing. It is very resistant to clogging and will follow the contours of even the most complex moulding.

Grit Grades

Abrasive particles are graded during manufacture by passing them through mesh of various sizes. The grit number relates to the number of particles per unit area and is an international classification. The higher the number, the finer the grade of abrasive.

Sanding Techniques

Sanding By Hand

Before using abrasive papers it is often necessary to use a cabinet scraper to remove fine tears and blemishes. A cork sanding block will ease this task and increase the life of the paper. Always sand with the grain, working up through the grits. For most woodwork projects, start at about 120 grit and move up to 240 grit. As paper becomes clogged, tap the sanding block against the bench to clear the dust. As a final touch, use a piece of worn, fine-grit paper to take the edge off any edges and corners. When you have sanded with the finest grade of paper, wipe a cloth lightly dampened with water over the surface of the wood. This causes the fibres to swell, and allows you to give a final sanding with the same grade of abrasive for a superior finish.

Power Sanding

Portable power sanders are ideal for initial sanding of surfaces and are fast, but they do have drawbacks. Belt sanders are aggressive and can quickly sand through veneers, or leave gouges in a surface. Even random orbital sanders can leave light scratches, and should always be followed by hand sanding. Combination and disc sanding machines are useful for initial sanding of components and edges and are particularly good for cleaning up end grain to make sure it is square.

Final Preparation

For finishing, your working area should be warm (15°C/59°F), well lit and ventilated. Both project and workshop should be thoroughly cleaned and vacuumed. Get as much dust out of the grain and pores as possible, particularly where dark and pale woods are used alongside each other. A tack cloth is ideal for this. You must also remove all traces of wax and silicon used to lubricate tools during construction. Clear an area of the workshop for your finishes, making sure that you have plenty of rags, mixing sticks and containers to hand.

Masking and Finishing

On complex pieces it may be easier to finish components before final assembly, especially internal surfaces of carcases that may be difficult to access once glued together. If you choose to do this, mask off gluing surfaces first. If not, there is a risk that joints will not hold when glued. Apply the finish in sequence: start with corners and undersides, ending up with the primary surfaces.

Word Discription :

Cutting back When a finish is applied, the grain is raised or the surface coating itself is uneven. This requires the finish to be smoothed down or ‘cut back’ between coats using a gentle abrasive.

De-nibbing The process of lightly sanding a varnished or lacquered surface between coats to remove dust particles. Tack cloth A fabric cloth impregnated with resin to collect dust particles from a surface.

99 Percentile GRE Prep – GRE Preparation

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101 Fly Fishing Tips

Click Image To Visit SiteHow rewarding will it feel when your buddies watch you in amazement on your next fly fishing trip as you bring in a huge catch?

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As good as your friends are (or think they are), it doesn’t mean they’re the best teachers.

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